Christian C. Figueroa: Conceptualization (equal); resources (supporting); writing – review and editing (equal). 0000009841 00000 n Both phenotypic and genetic data provided evidence for signs of sexual reproduction only in the southernmost climatic zone, where winter conditions are harsh and extreme in comparison to northern localities (Table 1 and Figure 4a). The black cycle represents the ancestral life cycle of aphids, cyclical parthenogenesis (CP). The output of the matrix of shared allele distances is shown in Figure 3 B as a neighbor‐joining tree. In this context, in lineages that have gained the ability to break away from sex (as aphids), the prevalence of sexual reproduction events can be due to some lineage‐specific factors. These results are congruent with the hypothesis of an ecological short‐term advantage of sex, a type of lineage‐specific mechanism for the maintenance of sexual reproduction. %%EOF What does the geography of parthenogenesis teach us about sex? 0000013553 00000 n 0000001888 00000 n The genotype APG3, which was mainly restricted to central Chile (with the exception of a single individual found in the southern collection, apS), consistently produced males along with parthenogenetic females, but no sexual females in all the seven tested lineages (Table 4). Nymph: similar to adult; without a cauda. 0000016959 00000 n 0000012842 00000 n Current hypotheses for the evolution of sex and recombination, Genetic control of contagious asexuality in the pea aphid, Estimation of genetic distance and coefficient of gene diversity from Single‐Probe Multilocus DNA Fingerprinting Data. In this context, the introduction of invasive species of agricultural importance is more likely to occur from the central region of Chile (Estay, 2016). One of them, the APG3 genotype, accounted for 96% of the total sampled individuals in central Chile, whereas APG2 was found in the remaining 4% in the same region. We would like to thank L. Briones for her laboratory assistance, D. Sepulveda for her technical support, and both, M.J. Orellana and J.T. Common attempts to explain the paradox of sex have focused on possible universal benefits that would compensate for these overwhelming costs. 0000003832 00000 n 0000005515 00000 n The maximum number of generations of A. pisum in all these years (~50 years) at an optimal temperature and with parthenogenetic reproduction system could be approximately 2,500 (following Siddiqui, Barlow, & Randolph, 1973). Furthermore, this gene is vital for aphid reproduction. Shinji. Causes for the loss of sexuality in aphids are not well understood. Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username,,, I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use. 60 56 La fondatrice s'alimente sur les bourgeons du collet de la Légumineuse pérenne (par ex. The life cycle begins with the diapausing eggs (surrounded by rectangle on left) that overwinter and give rise to the clone foundresses in the spring. Nevertheless, the loss of sexual reproduction has been described in almost every eukaryotic lineage (Stelzer, 2015). Large numbers of aphids are present on lucerne from September, sexuales (apterous males and females) later appearing to produce winter eggs. However, further studies are necessary to elucidate possible routes of introduction and spread of A. pisum genotypes in Chile. The APG1/2 complex, which dominates in northern Chile and represents a small fraction of individuals in Central Chile, was constantly found as strictly asexual (only parthenogenetic forms were produced in response to short‐day condition) in the three tested lineages. 0000006719 00000 n The first alfalfa fields in Chile were established long before the 19th century (Gay, 1865) but the first record of A. pisum dates from the early 70s (Zúñiga, Franca, Norambuena, & Quiroz, 1985). This advantage becomes even more evident in introduced areas, with generally benign climates, in which only 3% retains CP (Figueroa et al., 2018). (blue) temperatures (from,,, I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use, The masterpiece of nature: The evolution and genetics of sexuality, Insecticide use and competition shape the genetic diversity of the aphid Aphis gossypii in a cotton‐growing landscape, The geography of sex: Sexual conflict, environmental gradients and local loss of sex in facultatively parthenogenetic animals, The costs and benefits of sex: New insights from old asexual lineages, Microsatellite DNA markers for the pea aphid, Invasive insects in the mediterranean forests of Chile, Insects and diseases of Mediterranean forest, Biological and genetic features of introduced aphid populations in agroecosystems, Genetic structure and clonal diversity of an introduced pest in Chile, the cereal aphid, Temporal habitat variability and the maintenance of sex in host populations of the pea aphid, Historia física y política de Chile, Agricultura II, The two‐fold cost of sex: Experimental evidence from a natural system, Climate and agricultural context shape reproductive mode variation in an aphid crop pest, Origin and maintenance of sex: The evolutionary joys of self sex, Sex reduces genetic variation: A multidisciplinary review, Sex: A pluralist approach includes species selection. Variability in life‐history traits of the aphid, Sexual reproduction and the evolution of sex, GENALEX 6: Genetic analysis in Excel. 0000005754 00000 n We herein present the results of our molecular characterization, phylogenetic analysis, and functional annotation of the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) LpR gene (ApLpR). Prolonged periods of cool temperatures [50°F to 60°F (10°C to 15.5°C)] and dry conditions are con… Epigenetic variation in asexually reproducing organisms, Environmentally related patterns of reproductive modes in the aphid, Heritable genetic variation and potential for adaptive evolution in asexual aphids (Aphidoidea), Estrategia de control biológico pulgones de arveja y lenteja,,,,‐8286.2004.00676.x,,‐294X.2009.04250.x,‐8312.2009.01334.x,‐5646.2010.01173.x,‐9101.1999.00130.x,,‐4877.2012.00284.x,,,‐294X.2008.04077.x,,,‐8286.2004.00712.x,,,‐8286.2005.01155.x,,‐294X.2008.03949.x,,‐8286.2007.01931.x,,‐018‐0108‐8,‐294x.1999.00583.x,‐5347(01)02331‐X,,,‐294X.2003.01998.x,‐8312.2003.00176.x.

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