Structure and reactivity of protonated indole in the gas phase by MS/MS. International Journal of Mass Spectrometry and Ion Physics. Rearrangement of molecular ions following electron impact: IV—Origin of the [M—28]+˙ ions in the mass spectra of α‐methyl‐2‐decalone. Journal of the Mass Spectrometry Society of Japan. A double quadrupole for mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. The full text of this article hosted at is unavailable due to technical difficulties. Organic Chemistry Quizzes, Practice Exams, Study Guides, Reaction Guides and More! The gas-phase pinacol rearrangement and related reactions in organic cations generated by chemical ionisation. (iii) Alkene elimination is another ubiquitous reaction which occurs by a four‐centered mechanism in the systems studied here. Both ketones and aldehydes give prominent molecular ion peaks though the [M+] peak is more prominent in ketones. This rearrangement is mediated by the p  systems of the carbonyl group but can occur in other p systems such as in nitriles (Section 6.17). The ions are formed by protonation or alkylation in a chemical ionization source, and caused to fragment by collision at high relative kinetic energy. Reaction mechanisms of gaseous organic ions. Determination of chemical classes from mass spectra of toxic organic compounds by SIMCA pattern recognition and information theory. Complete Summary of Organic Reactions (downloadable), All videos, study guides, and quizzes for chapters 1 and 2, DAT Practice Exams (free for a limited time), OAT Practice Exams (free for a limited time), Chad’s High School Chemistry Master Course, Chad’s Organic Chemistry Refresher for the ACS Final Exam, 14.6c Fragmentation Patterns of Ketones and Aldehydes, Chapter 1 – Electrons, Bonding, and Molecular Properties, 1.3 Valence Bond Theory and Hybridization, Chapter 2 – Molecular Representations and Resonance, 4.6 Cycloalkanes and Cyclohexane Chair Conformations, 5.2 Absolute Configurations | How to Assign R and S, 5.3 Molecules with Multiple Chiral Centers, 5.5 Determining the Relationship Between a Pair of Molecules, 5.6 Amine Inversion and Chiral Molecules Without Chiral Centers, Chapter 6 – Organic Reactions and Mechanisms, 6.1 Reaction Enthalpies and Bond Dissociation Energies, 6.2 Entropy, Gibbs Free Energy, and the Equilibrium Constant, 6.4 Nucleophiles, Electrophiles, and Intermediates, 6.5 Reaction Mechanisms and Curved Arrow Pushing, Chapter 7 – Substitution and Elimination Reactions, 7.4 Introduction to Elimination Reactions [Zaitsev’s Rule and the Stability of Alkenes], Chapter 8 – Addition Reactions to Alkenes, 8.1 Introduction to Alkene Addition Reactions, 8.3b Hydration Oxymercuration Demercuration, 8.4a Acid Catalyzed Addition of an Alcohol, 8.8 Predicting the Products of Alkene Addition Reactions, 8.9 Oxidative Cleavage Ozonolysis and Permanganate Cleavage, 9.5 Introduction to Addition Reactions of Alkynes, 10.2 Free Radical Chlorination vs Bromination, 10.3 The Mechanism of Free Radical Halogenation, 10.4 Allylic and Benzylic Bromination Using NBS, 10.5 Hydrobromination of Alkenes with Peroxide, 11.2 Increasing the Length of the Carbon Skeleton, 11.3 Decreasing the Length of the Carbon Chain or Opening a Ring, 11.4a Common Patterns in Synthesis Part 1, 11.4b Common Patterns in Synthesis Part 2, 11.4c Common Patterns in Synthesis Part 3, 11.4d Common Patterns in Synthesis Part 4, 12.1 Properties and Nomenclature of Alcohols, 12.3a Synthesis of Alcohols; Reduction of Ketones and Aldehydes, 12.3b Synthesis of Alcohols; Grignard Addition, Chapter 13 – Ethers, Epoxides, Thiols, and Sulfides, 13.1 Introduction to Nomenclature of Ethers, 13.7 Nomenclature, Synthesis, and Reactions of Thiols, 13.8 Nomenclature, Synthesis, and Reactions of Sulfides, Chapter 14 – IR Spectroscopy and Mass Spectrometry, 14.2b The Effect of Conjugation on the Carbonyl Stretching Frequency, 14.5 Isotope Effects in Mass Spectrometry, 14.6a Fragmentation Patterns of Alkanes, Alkenes, and Aromatic Compounds, 14.6b Fragmentation Patterns of Alkyl Halides, Alcohols, and Amines, 15.4 Homotopic vs Enantiotopic vs Diastereotopic, 15.5a The Chemical Shift in C 13 and Proton NMR, 15.5b The Integration or Area Under a Signal in Proton NMR, 15.5c The Splitting or Multiplicity in Proton NMR, 15.6d Structural Determination From All Spectra Example 4, 15.6e Structural Determination From All Spectra Example 5, 16.1 Introduction to Conjugated Systems and Heats of Hydrogenation, 16.2a Introduction to Pi Molecular Orbitals Ethylene, 16.2b Pi Molecular Orbitals 1,3 Butadiene, 16.2c Pi Molecular Orbitals the Allyl System, 16.2d Pi Molecular Orbitals 1,3,5 Hexatriene, 16.4 Addition Reactions to Conjugated Dienes, 16.5a Introduction to Diels Alder Reactions, 16.5b Stereoselectivity and Regioselectivity in Diels Alder Reactions, 16.5c Diels Alder Reactions with Cyclic Dienes, 16.5d Conservation of Orbital Symmetry in Diels Alder Reactions, 17.2b Aromatic vs Nonaromatic vs Antiaromatic, 17.3 The Effects of Aromaticity on SN1 Reactions and Acidity Basicity, 17.4 Aromaticity and Molecular Orbital Theory, Chapter 18 – Reactions of Aromatic Compounds, 18.1 Introduction to Aromatic Substitution Reactions, 18.2d EAS Friedel Crafts Alkylation and Acylation, 18.2e EAS Activating and Deactivating Groups and Ortho Para and Meta Directors, 18.2f EAS Predicting the Products of EAS Reactions, 18.3 Catalytic Hydrogenation and the Birch Reduction, 18.4a Side Chain Oxidation with Permanganate or Chromic Acid, 18.4c The Clemmensen and Wolff Kishner Reductions, 19.1 Nomenclature of Ketones and Aldehydes, 19.3 Introduction to Nucleophilic Addition Reactions, 19.5b Cyclic Acetals as Protecting Groups, 19.6a Addition of Primary Amines Imine Formation, 19.6b Addition of Secondary Amines Enamine Formation, 19.6c Mechanism for the Wolff Kishner Reduction, 19.9a Addition of Acetylide Ions and Grignard Reagents, 19.9b Addition of HCN Cyanohydrin Formation, Chapter 20 – Carboxylic Acids and Acid Derivatives, 20.1 Introduction to and Physical Properties of Carboyxylic Acids and Acid Derivatives, 20.3 Introduction to Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution, 20.4 Reaction with Organometallic Reagents, 20.6 Interconversion of Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives, 20.7 The Mechanisms of Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution, 20.9 Synthesis and Reactions of Acid Anhydrides, 20.11 Synthesis and Reactions of Carboxylic Acids, 20.13 Synthesis and Reactions of Nitriles, Chapter 21 – Substitution Reactions at the Alpha Carbon, 21.2 General Mechanisms of Alpha Substitution Reactions, 22.4b Synthesis of Amines Hofmann Rearrangement, 22.4c Synthesis of Amines Curtius Rearrangement and Schmidt Reaction, 22.4d Synthesis of Amines Gabriel Synthesis, 22.4e Synthesis of Amines Reductive Amination, 22.8a Reaction with Nitrous Acid and the Sandmeyer Reactions, 22.9 EAS Reactions with Nitrogen Heterocycles, FREE Trial -- Chad's Ultimate Organic Chemistry Prep.

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