The term expanded to include access to the Internet since it exploded onto the technology scene and is now connected to virtually all computing.Alexander van Deursen and Jan van Dijk, “Internet Skills and the Digital Divide,” New Media and Society 13, no. 2 (2009): 94. doi:10.1080/17475750903395408. This is “Intercultural Communication”, section 8.3 from the book A Primer on Communication Studies (v. 1.0). Holding a dialectical perspective may be challenging for some Westerners, as it asks us to hold two contradictory ideas simultaneously, which goes against much of what we are taught in our formal education. 4 (1996): 324–25. 1 (1999): 1–25. A gay or lesbian couple doesn’t necessarily constitute an intercultural relationship, but as we have already discussed, sexuality is an important part of an individual’s identity and connects to larger social and cultural systems. While interracial relationships have occurred throughout history, there have been more historical taboos in the United States regarding relationships between African Americans and white people than other racial groups. This is relevant to cultural identities because there are already inequalities in terms of access to technology based on age, race, and class.Dari E. Sylvester and Adam J. McGlynn, “The Digital Divide, Political Participation, and Place,” Social Science Computer Review 28, no. Negative stereotypes may also hinder progress toward relational development, especially if the individuals are not open to adjusting their preexisting beliefs. How might limited access to technology negatively affect various nondominant groups? Obviously, the global market sets up the need to have intercultural competence for employees who travel between locations of a multinational corporation. This tendency is evident in most of the popular, and some of the academic, conversations regarding “gender differences.” The book Men Are from Mars and Women Are from Venus makes it seem like men and women aren’t even species that hail from the same planet. The focus of this section is on friendships and romantic relationships, but much of the following discussion can be extended to other relationship types. Having already discussed the importance of similarity in attraction to mates, it’s important to note that partners in an interracial relationship, although culturally different, tend to be similar in occupation and income. Does that mean we come from a high-context culture? Add cultural differences to the mix, and the sources of potential problems multiply. What do you think of Finland’s inclusion of broadband access as a legal right? Dialectic that allows us to examine how we are simultaneously similar to and different from others. This is often a difficult dialectic for my students to understand, because they are quick to point out exceptions that they think challenge this notion. More information is available on this project's attribution page. Those perceptions affect their interactions and communication strategies. Intercultural communication can allow us to step outside of our comfortable, usual frame of reference and see our culture through a different lens. Normally, the author and publisher would be credited here. For example, many people like to point out Oprah Winfrey as a powerful African American woman. She also stated that she respects French laws but cannot abide by this one. Has this book helped you? The benefit of increased cultural awareness is often achieved, because the relational partners explain their cultures to each other. Antimiscegenation lawsLaws that made it illegal for people of different racial/ethnic groups to marry. She recounts how she has been denied access to banks and other public buildings and was verbally harassed by a woman on the street and then punched in the face by the woman’s husband. To download a .zip file containing this book to use offline, simply click here. Dialectic that reminds us to acknowledge how the past informs our communication in the present, how the present influences our view of the past, and how the past and present will affect our future. Perceived differences in general also create anxiety and uncertainty that is not as present in intracultural relationships. Maia De La Baume and J. David Goodman, “First Fines over Wearing Veils in France,”, Christian Fraser, “The Women Defying France’s Fall-Face Veil Ban,”. Mary Jane Coller, “Communication Competence Problematics in Ethnic Friendships,”, Pei-Wen Lee, “Bridging Cultures: Understanding the Construction of Relational Identity in Intercultural Friendships,”, Patricia M. Sias, Jolanta A. Drzewiecka, Mary Meares, Rhiannon Bent, Yoko Konomi, Maria Ortega, and Colene White, “Intercultural Friendship Development,”, Yea-Wen Chen and Masato Nakazawa, “Influences of Culture on Self-Disclosure as Relationally Situated in Intercultural and Interracial Friendships from a Social Penetration Perspective,”, Mary Jane Collier, “Communication Competence Problematics in Ethnic Friendships,”, Letitia Anne Peplau and Leah R. Spalding, “The Close Relationships of Lesbians, Gay Men, and Bisexuals,” in. All international communication is influenced by cultural differences. Completing the CAPTCHA proves you are a human and gives you temporary access to the web property. Clyde Hendrick and Susan S. Hendrick (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2000), 113. I likely would not have gained this cultural knowledge or skill without the benefits of my intercultural friendship. This means we look at the relationship between aspects of intercultural communication rather than viewing them in isolation. where vast distances are now much shorter due to new technology that make travel and communication more accessible and convenient.Marshall McLuhan, The Medium Is the Message (New York: Bantam Books, 1967). The privileges-disadvantages dialecticDialectic that captures the complex interrelation of unearned, systemic advantages and disadvantages that operate among our various identities. That’s why I suggest that my students use the term other gender instead of the commonly used opposite sex. Diversity not only involves how people perceive themselves, but also how they perceive others. Gay, lesbian, and heterosexual people seek similar qualities in a potential mate, and once relationships are established, all these groups experience similar degrees of relational satisfaction.Letitia Anne Peplau and Leah R. Spalding, “The Close Relationships of Lesbians, Gay Men, and Bisexuals,” in Close Relationships: A Sourcebook, eds. Perhaps no example is more entrenched in our past and avoided in our present as the history of slavery in the United States. There has been much research on interracial couples that counters the popular notion that partners may be less satisfied in their relationships due to cultural differences. 6 (2010): 893. doi:10.1177/1461444810386774. But some gay and lesbian people may feel pressured into or just feel more comfortable not disclosing or displaying their sexual orientation at work or perhaps even to some family and friends, which closes off important social networks through which most romantic relationships begin. 1 (2010): 64–65. It wasn’t until 1967 that the Supreme Court ruled in the case of Loving versus Virginia, declaring these laws to be unconstitutional.Robert A. Pratt, “Crossing the Color Line: A Historical Assessment and Personal Narrative of Loving v. Virginia,” Howard Law Journal 41, no. Prior intercultural experience and overcoming language barriers increase the likelihood of intercultural friendship formation.Patricia M. Sias, Jolanta A. Drzewiecka, Mary Meares, Rhiannon Bent, Yoko Konomi, Maria Ortega, and Colene White, “Intercultural Friendship Development,” Communication Reports 21, no. This pressure to refrain from disclosing one’s gay or lesbian sexual orientation in the workplace is not unfounded, as it is still legal in twenty-nine states (as of November 2012) to fire someone for being gay or lesbian.“Pass ENDA Now,” Human Rights Campaign, accessed November 5, 2012, http://www.hrc.org/campaigns/employment-non-discrimination-act.

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