[90], The NAACP, the leading African-American civil rights organization, has pledged its support for gay rights and same-sex marriage, stating that they "support marriage equality consistent with equal protection under the law provided under the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution", and has declared that same-sex marriage is a civil right. [10][11][12], The Supreme Court's ruling in Obergefell v. Hodges ended all inter-state legal complications surrounding same-sex marriage, as it orders states to both perform the marriages of same-sex couples and to recognize the marriages of same-sex couples performed in other states. The fifty states each have separate marriage laws, which must adhere to rulings by the Supreme Court of the United States that recognize marriage as a fundamental right that is guaranteed by both the Due Process Clause and the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, as first established in the 1967 landmark civil rights case of Loving v. Virginia. Western Journal of Black Studies 29.1 (Spring2005 2005): 521–530. [144] A 2004 study by the Congressional Budget Office found 1,138 statutory provisions "in which marital status is a factor in determining or receiving 'benefits, rights, and privileges. [88] In 2009, Julian Bond, a leader of the civil rights movement and a chairman of the NAACP, expressed his support for same-sex marriage and stated that "gay rights are civil rights". [149], The 2004 Congressional Budget Office study, working from an assumption "that about 0.6 percent of adults would enter into same-sex marriages if they had the opportunity" (an assumption in which they admitted "significant uncertainty") estimated that legalizing same-sex marriage throughout the United States "would improve the budget's bottom line to a small extent: by less than $1 billion in each of the next 10 years". Hate Crimes Prevention Act, Masterpiece Cakeshop v. Colorado Civil Rights Commission, Presidential Memorandum of August 25, 2017, State bans on local anti-discrimination laws, History of violence against LGBT people in the United States, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, Drafting and ratification of Constitution, Office of the Director of National Intelligence, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Same-sex_marriage_in_the_United_States&oldid=989984515, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown, Wikipedia pending changes protected pages, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, State court decision → overturned by constitutional ban, Federal court decision → legislative statute, State court decision → legislative statute, 165,124 (not included in population total), Binding federal court precedent → actions of territorial officials → federal court decision → legislative statute, Federal court decision → Legislative statute, Binding federal court precedent → actions of state officials → federal court decision, Performed in the Netherlands proper, including the. [171], According to Gallup, the percent of cohabiting same-sex couples who are married rose from 38% in 2015 to 49% in 2016 and to 61% in 2017.[172]. In the United States, Congress (not the federal courts) has legal authority over Native reservations. [87] In 2007, Mildred Loving, the joint plaintiff alongside her husband Richard Loving in the landmark civil rights case of Loving v. Virginia in 1967, in which the Supreme Court of the United States struck down all state bans on inter-racial marriage, issued a statement on the 40th anniversary of the ruling in which she expressed her support for same-sex marriage and described it as a civil right akin to inter-racial marriage, stating that "I believe all Americans, no matter their race, no matter their sex, no matter their sexual orientation, should have that same freedom to marry". [115], Shortly after winning the 2016 election, President Donald Trump said he's "fine" with same-sex marriage and believes it to be settled law: "It's law. A study of nationwide data from January 1999 to December 2015 revealed that the establishment of same-sex marriage is associated with a significant reduction in the rate of attempted suicide among children, with the effect being concentrated among children of a minority sexual orientation, resulting in approximately 134,000 fewer children attempting suicide each year in the United States.

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